How to plant a wildlife garden: Pollinator-friendly plants and container displays for bees and butterflies
We look at how to create a wildlife garden, improve habitats for pollinating insects like bees and butterflies and the best plants and flowers to help attract insects into the garden. Plus, answer common questions like what does pollinator-friendly mean?
British gardens are key habitats for bees and butterflies and gardeners can do a lot to attract wildlife and help the decline in pollinators. An increase in beneficial insects can mean fewer pests, too. Our guide to attracting wildlife into the garden gives advice on ecological design, the best plants for pollinators and stylish container displays for beneficial insects.
Here is our guide to attracting wildlife into the garden, with advice on pollinator-friendly plants and how to improve wildlife habitats through considered garden design.
How to attract birds, bees and butterflies in the garden
What does pollinator friendly mean?
If a plant is listed as pollinator friendly, it means it will provide nectar and pollen for pollinating insects such as bees and butterflies. It also refers to the shape of the flower and how the plant has been grown. Pollinator-plants will often have trumpet-shaped blooms or single flowers for insects to crawl into and land on, and mostly free from pesticides. Look out for the Royal Horticultural Society’s Plants for Pollinators symbol at garden centres and plant nurseries if you want reassurance that you’re buying the best plants for garden wildlife.
How to encourage bees, butterflies and other insects in the garden
There are lots of ways to encourage wildlife into the garden, from simply planting a range of different flowering plants, to building an insect hotel or introducing a bird feeder. Here are a few ideas to get you started.
Grow a range of bee and butterfly-loving plants and flowers
- Make sure the plants have different flower shapes to invite a whole host of beneficial insects into the garden. Salvias or Verbena bonariensis attract butterflies and bees, and trees and evergreen shrubs that will provide shelter for birds. Try to leave a patch of nettles, as they are beneficial as food to caterpillars
Leave seeds head up over winter for insects
- In winter, leave architectural seed heads for birds to feed on and plants with strong stems are perfect for hibernating beetles and solitary bees
Look for plants that bees will love - full of pollen
- Avoid sterile plants with little or no pollen. These are often double flowered cultivar
Build a pond
- Build a pond for frogs. They’ll eat the slugs attacking your lettuce. Make sure small animals can get out of the pond easily by creating a boggy area around it.
Make space for insect hotels and bird boxes
- Hedgehog houses, insect hotels and bird boxes are all easy to add to the garden and are invaluable to hibernating wildlife and nesting birds.
Make sure you plant with biodiversity in mind
- Enhance biodiversity. Don’t tidy your garden too much. In autumn, leave all plants and leaves that have died off and don’t start clearing them up until February. The dead plant material offers protection against frost and shelter for insects and other small animals. Most insects like cool, moist conditions, but bees prefer a sunny spot.
Never use pesticides.
The best plants for bees, butterflies and other beneficial insects
This species – along with all the cotoneasters, but surpassing others in popularity – offers pollen and nectar to insects, as well as berries for birds. It has attractively coloured autumn foliage and an architectural form for either ground cover or as a wall plant. It produces small, white-blushed pink flowers in May, and are inconspicuous until the hum of bees make you stop.
Height 3m. Hardiness rating RHS H4, USDA 5a-7b. Season All year round.
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The single, fragrant flowers offer a mass of easily accessible pollen and nectar for bees. It has huge hips to nourish birds and small mammals. They are among the healthiest and easiest roses to grow.
Prunus padus 'Colorata'
A charming medium-sized open textured tree characterised by a distinctly gaunt appearance. Its loose, rounded crown is made up of a criss-cross of long think, dark coloured drooping branches, which in spring are dressed in reddish bronze leaves. These fade to sombre green. The gappy five-petalled flowers are pale pink with creamy green centres. Small, rounded, bitter fruit with glossy skin follow before autumn turns the scene orange red.
Height 12m. Hardiness rating RHS H4, USDA 3a-8b. Season of interest April-May for foliage and flowers. October-November for autumn colour.
Buddlejas famously attract insects – especially butterflies. This cultivar flowers latest in the season, when the largest numbers of butterflies are on the wing. If you’ve got B. davidii you can delay it by pruning later in spring. Extend the season by deadheading to encourage side flowers. Deadheading also decreases the risk of self-seeding as buddleja is increasingly considered as an invasive plant.
A native plant, common knapweed is easy to grow in borders as well as meadows. Provides pollen and nectar for a wide range of foraging insects – bees, butterflies and moths. Finches devour the abundant seed. Forms vary considerably and some, such as Centaurea nigra, are particularly garden-worthy.
Height 60cm. Hardiness ratings USDA 7a-10a. Season of interest Summer
With the desperate need to stem the declining honeybee population, these pastel-coloured flowers are a perfect food source. They will happily naturalise themselves in the garden. Dead-head geraniums in July and they will often flower again.
Height 90cm. Hardiness ratings USDA 4a-9b. Season of interest Summer
Also known as giant hyssops, these spires tend to be short-lived, requiring excellent drainage and sun. ‘Blackadder’ is an outstanding cultivar with a dark calyx and bluish-purple flowers beloved by bees. Aromatic foliage is an extra bonus and it flowers throughout the summer months.
Height 90cm. Hardiness ratings USDA 6a-9b.
Aster ‘Little Carlow’ (cordifolius hybrid)
A superb, easily grown, mildew-resistant, small-flowered aster for September providing myriad blue daisies with yellow centres. Once fertilised the boss turns red, a colour bees cannot see, so they save energy by visiting only unfertilised flowers. It is also popular with butterflies.
Height 90cm. Hardiness ratings RHS H7, USDA 5a-8b. Season of interest September
A cow parsley relative flowering in May and June attracting hoverflies to its creamy white umbels over mounds of dark green dissected foliage. Easy in dappled shade or sun, perhaps best suited to the wild garden where it can seed around.
Height 1m. Hardiness rating USDA 6a. Season of interest Early Summer.
An endemic from the South of France and Spain, Centranthus lecoqii is a variation on the theme of our native red valerian with lilac-coloured flowers. It is attractive to bees, hoverflies, butterflies and hummingbird hawk moths, growing vigorously in sun and poor soils.
Height 50cm. Hardiness rating USDA 5a-6a.
This prickly character is a member of the cow parsley tribe. It grows best in full sun with good drainage. Beloved by beneficial insects especially bumblebees. It flowers in summer then leaves an elegant skeleton and plenty of seeds for hungry birds.
Height 50cm. Hardiness ratings USDA 7b-8b.
Another cow parsley relative with fresh-looking shiny green leaves and an upright habit, topped with umbels of white flowers in June and July. It is often biennial, although it can be a short-lived perennial. Attracts hoverflies, tolerating sun or dappled shade.
Height 90cm. Hardiness ratings USDA 4a-8b.
Veronicastrum virginicum ‘Lavendelturm’
Long spires of lavender flowers appear in June and July on this tall perennial. Useful for vertical accents in a border, it is beloved by bees, hoverflies, moths and butterflies. Leaves a graceful skeleton through the late summer months.
Height 1.5m. Hardiness ratings USDA 5a-9b. Season of interest Summer
Ways to attract wildlife into the garden
A few more ideas and extra advice to help welcome beneficial wildlife into your garden.
Attracting Ladybirds in the garden
- There are several pollen plants that attract ladybugs that tend to be yellow and white, such as Angelica, Cosmos and Fennel.
- Plant decoy plants that will attract aphids away from your desired bug free plants until the ladybugs remove them for you. Aphid attracting decoy plants could include: Early Cabbage, Marigold and Radish.
Ladybugs eat two things: insect pests and pollen, and there are several pollen plants that ladybugs like, including: Calendula, Chives, Cosmos and Marigold.
Attracting bats to your garden
Did you know that attracting bats to your garden is one of the safest and most efficient methods for natural insect control? One little brown bat can eat 1,200 insects per hour.
A great bat attracting method is to build a bat house to provide a warm cosy shelter for the creatures. Since bats tend to set up colonies in the early spring, building a bat house is the perfect winter project! Some tips are:
- Use a rough, nontoxic wood (such as plywood or cedar) to make your box. The rough surface will make it easier for bats to climb in and out of the house.
- Place in a warm, sunny position for warmth
- Keep it close to a freshwater source (pond, stream)
- Support on a pole or the side of a building.
The key to attracting bats to your garden is to plant night-scented flowers, such as Yucca and Evening Primrose.
Attracting frogs to your garden
Attracting frogs to your garden is beneficial for the welfare of your plants. Frogs make great insect killers so why not attract some garden frogs to help with those little pests.
- Build toad houses – overturned flower pots buried lightly in the soil make great shelters.
- Avoid using pesticides in your garden. Frogs are sensitive to chemicals so use natural sources of nutrients in your garden such as compost.
- Keep pets away from the part of the garden set up for attracting frogs.
Toads and female frogs usually spend winter on land, under rockery stones (or in a log pile). Recommended rock plants are: Aubretia, Hardy Geraniums and Sedums.
If you want your garden to benefit pollinating insects like bees and butterflies but worry your garden isn't big enough for swathes of planting, consider creating a pot display. Containers planted with plants that attract wildlife suit a garden of any size. Try this gorgeous example.
Seedheads glistening with frost play an important part in bringing structural winter interest to the garden as well as providing food for birds and insects. For our recommended list of the best seedheads to create and eye-catching display in winter, click here.
A healthy spider population will help reduce pest insects and should be welcome in any garden. Spiders obviously make no distinction between pests and helpful insects like hoverflies and bees, but they help maintain a natural balance wherever they are. Find out how to appreciate the spiders in your garden here.
No-dig gardener Charles Dowding explains why caring for the soil in your garden is just as important as caring for the plants you grow in it. Nurture your soil and you nurture the helpful organisms living in it, such as earthworms and beneficial fungi and bacteria. Read the full article here.
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