Gardens Illustrated
Pruning roses
© Gavin Kingcome

How to prune roses

Published: June 29, 2022 at 12:27 pm
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Discover how to prune all types of roses including shrub, climbing and rambling roses in our guide from plant expert John Hoyland. Photographs Gavin Kingcome.

Pruning roses encourages lots of beautiful flowers in summer. It also helps to produce a healthy, attractive, long-lived plant.

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Shrub roses, climbing roses, rambling roses, patio roses and standards are all pruned in slightly different ways, but the main principles are the same. Read our guide to the principles of pruning and don't miss our round up of the best tools for pruning. If you're looking for how to deadhead roses, scroll down to the bottom.

How to prune roses

When to prune roses

The best time to prune roses is any time between autumn and early spring.

Pruning roses early gives you neat plants through the winter, which don't harbour disease and won’t be injured by high winds. The root system of roses is not as extensive as most other shrubs, and plants are susceptible to ‘wind rock’.

The problem with early rose pruning is that frost can damage the newly-pruned stems. To get the best of both pruning regimes I prune my roses in two stages: they get a first prune in early winter to clean them up and reduce their height, and another, to finish the job, in the spring.

Removing a dead rose stem © Gavin Kingcome

The first task, whatever the type of rose you are pruning, is to take out any dead or diseased rose stems, which should be removed at their base. Damaged or withered stems should be cut back to a healthy green shoot. When you cut through a rose stem it should be clean and white. If it is black, or has a dark centre, cut again further down the stem.

Weeping standard roses are produced by grafting a vigorous rambling or climbing rose on to a tall stem.

  • During the autumn cut all the stems that have flowered to a new strong shoot near the crown of the plant.
  • By the following spring lots of new shoots will be growing at odd angles. Remove these to retain the ‘weeping’ appearance.

How to deadhead roses

Shrub roses
Deadheading a rose © Gavin Kingcome

By deadheading roses as the flowers fade, you encourage more buds to be produced and so extend the flowering season of your rose. Simply remove the flower's stem at the point where it grows from the main stem.

More like this

Follow my specific advice for pruning different types of roses, below.

How to prune shrub roses

Cut stems to reduce the height by about a third
Cutting stems to reduce their height © Gavin Kingcome
  • Shrub roses are best pruned in the autumn.
  • Cut out old, woody stems at the base of the rose using long-handled loppers. To encourage better flowering, and to reduce the rose's susceptibility to disease, you must create a plant that is open in the middle to allow light and air into the shrub. Cut off stems growing diagonally across the centre of the shrub and those rubbing against each other.
  • Next, prune off the top quarter of the rose’s growth. Don’t worry at this stage about where you cut.
  • The following spring, prune the top stems to a new rose bud that is growing away from the centre of the plant. Using sharp secateurs, cut just above the bud at an angle of about 45°, with the blade sloping away from it. Smaller side-shoots should be cut back to two or three buds.
  • Rose horns can do a lot of damage, so wear thick gloves. Hybrid tea and floribunda shorter hybrid tea and floribunda roses need to be pruned back to 45cm high, which means shortening shoots by one third to a half of their length. Again, cut just above an outward-facing bud with a sloping cut.

Thin rose stems (the diameter of a pencil) won’t produce many flowers. Cut back close to the main stem to stimulate stronger growth.

Pruning climbing and rambling roses

  • In general, rambling roses produce new stems annually from the ground; climbing roses produce new stems from everywhere along their existing ones.
  • Each autumn prune about a third of the stems of rambling roses down to a new shoot near the base.
  • Climbing roses fall into two categories: those that flower once a year (the flowers grow from last year’s stems) and those that repeat flower (the flowers grow from current-year sideshoots).
  • With once-flowering varieties, once again, prune one in three of the main stems and then prune the flowered sideshoots on all the stems to two or three buds away from the main framework.
  • Repeat-flowering rose climbers tend not to be vigorous roses and need little pruning other than deadheading.
  • It is essential to train the stems of climbing roses horizontally to produce a good display of flowers.
  • Place supporting wires 30cm apart and tie the stems along them with soft string at 30cm intervals.
  • If you are growing the rose up a post or a pergola, wrap the stems around the support: stems allowed to grow straight upwards will be bare of flowers.
  • Once the rose is established, and you have covered the wall, cut off unwanted growth at its base and remove faded flowers.
  • Prune back side shoots by about two thirds of their length in autumn.
  • Cut old, woody stems back at their base to a new shoot and tie any later growth from this in, to fill the gap.

Here's our feature on pruning climbers including wisteria

How to prune miniature or patio roses

Miniature, or ‘patio’, roses are a great option for a pot on the patio and they need very little pruning.

  • Remove the dead flowers as they fade.
  • Cut out desiccated stems in the autumn and trim the whole plant by about a third in the spring.

Dealing with rose suckers

Pruning roses
© Gavin Kingcome
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Most roses are budded or grafted on to the rootstock of a wild rose. Occasionally a rose will produce stems from the rootstock rather than from the grafted plant. These are called suckers and are very vigorous. Left to grow they will dominate the whole rose, leaving you with a wild rose rather than the elegant hybrid you originally planted. The swelling at the base of the stem at soil level is the place where the rose was grafted. Shoots appearing from below ground or underneath the grafting point are probably suckers. They are usually fatter than grafted stems, covered in more thorns, and have seven leaves rather than the five typical of grafted roses. To remove them, follow the rose stem down to the point it grows from, clearing away the soil if necessary, and pull it away. If you cut it down rather than pull it off you will only encourage more shoots.

Authors

A former nurseryman, John now spends most of his time nurturing his own garden in the foothills of the French Pyrenees. He is Gardens Adviser to Glyndebourne and currently has gardening projects in the UK, Spain and France.

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